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Reposted here with the permission of the author.  GOVERNMENT (Republican Form of Government)- One in which the powers of sovereignty are vested in the people and are exercised by the people ... directly ... - ...- - Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, P. 695

   People - DIRECTLY - exercise sovereignty.

This "revolutionary" concept of sovereignty derives from the fourth Article of Confederation: "The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states... shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states ..." [Article IV of the Articles of Confederation (1777)]

   Remember, a citizen is a SUBJECT, obligated to perform M A N D A T O R Y civic duties.

   Free inhabitants had their endowed rights and powers PLUS any privileges and immunities that government granted to its own subject citizens.


The people of the state, as the successors of its former sovereign, are entitled to all the rights which formerly belonged to the king by his own prerogative. Lansing v. Smith, (1829) 4 Wendell 9, (NY)

   At the Revolution, the sovereignty devolved on the people and they are truly the sovereigns of the country. Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 Dall. 440, 463

    It will be admitted on all hands that with the exception of the powers granted to the states and the federal government, through the Constitutions, the people of the several states are unconditionally sovereign within their respective states. Ohio L. Ins. & T. Co. v. Debolt 16 How. 416, 14 L.Ed. 997

    In America, however, the case is widely different. Our government is founded upon compact. Sovereignty was, and is, in the people. [ Glass vs The Sloop Betsey, 3 Dall 6 (1794)]

    Sovereignty itself is, of course, not subject to law, for it is the author and source of law; but in our system, while sovereign powers are delegated to the agencies of government, sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom and for whom all government exists and acts. [Yick Wo vs Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, 370 (1886)]

2 years, 7 months ago on A Republican Form of Government: Citizen Lawmaking